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## Table of Contents

Analytical Writing Assessment 18

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## GMAT Practice Test

#### Problem-solving

Solve these problems and indicate the best of the answer choices given. All numbers used are real numbers*.*

If

*a*= 3 and*b*= -2, what is the value of*a*2 + 3*ab*–*b*2?5 B. -13

C. -4 D. -20

E. 13

34 is what percent of 80? A. 34%

B. 40%

C. 42.5%

D. 44.5%

E. 52%

Jack and Kevin play in a basketball game. If the ratio of points scored by Jack to points scored by Kevin is 4 to 3, which of the following could NOT be the total number of points scored by the two boys?

7

14

16

28

35

Factor the following expression:

*x*2 +*x*– 12 A. (*x*– 4) (*x*+ 4)B. (

*x*– 2) (*x*+ 6)C. (

*x*+ 6) (*x*– 2)D. (

*x*– 4) (*x*+ 3)E. (

*x*+ 4) (*x*– 3)The average of six numbers is 4. If the average of two of those numbers is 2, what is the average of the other four numbers?

5

6

7

8

9

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What is the next-highest prime number after 67?

68

69

71

73

76

7. Solve: 0.25 x 0.03 =

A. 75

B. 0.075

C. 0.75

D. 0.0075

E. 7.5

Dean’s Department Store reduces the price of a $30 shirt by 20%, but later raises it again by 20% of the sale price. What is the final price of the shirt?

A. $24.40 B. $32

C. $30

D. $28.80 E. $26.60

How many 3-inch segments can a 4.5-yard line be divided into?

15

45

54

64

84

Sheila, Janice, and Karen, working together at the same rate, can complete a job in 3 1/3 days. Working at the same rate, how much of the job could Janice and Karen do in one day?

A. 1/5 B. 1/4 C. 1/3 D. 1/9 E. 1/8

Dave can deliver four newspapers every minute. At this rate, how many newspapers can he deliver in 2 hours?

80 B. 160 C. 320 D. 400 E. 480

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12. 46 28

2

8

16

32

64

If

*a*= 4,*b*= 3, and*c*= 1, then A. 4/13B. 1/3 C. 1/4 D. 1/6 E. 2/7

a(b c)

b(a b c)

What is 20% of 12 , expressed as a percentage?

5

A. 48%

B. 65%

C. 72%

D. 76%

E. 84%

Archie’s gas tank is 1/3 full. If Archie adds 3 gallons of gas to the tank, it will be ½ full. What is the capacity in gallons of Archie’s tank?

28

12

20

16

18

#### Data sufficiency

This Data Sufficiency problem consists of a question and two statements, labeled

(1) and (2), in which certain data are given. You have to decide whether the data given in the statements are sufficient for answering the question, using only the data given in the statements and your knowledge of mathematics and everyday facts (such as the number of days in July or the meaning of counterclockwise).

Does Jonathan get paid more than Deborah?

Alice gets paid more than Deborah.

Jonathan makes less money than Alice.

Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.

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Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.

BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

Is the integer

*a*less than the integer*b*?(1)

*a*3 <*b*3(2)

*a*2 <*b*2Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.

Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.

BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

Is the perimeter of a given rectangle greater than 8 inches?

The two shorter sides of the rectangle are 2 inches long.

The length of the rectangle is 2 inches greater than the width of the

Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.

Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.

BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

Is

*a*an integer?(1)

*a*> 0(2) 42 + 32 =

*a*2Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.

Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.

BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

What is the value of the integer

*P*?(1)

*P*is an integer multiple of 2, 4, and 5. (2) 40 <*P*< 70Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.

Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.

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BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

Brian is dividing 50 marbles into 3 groups. How many marbles are in the largest of the three groups?

The sum of the two smaller groups of marbles is equal to the largest group of marbles.

The smallest group contains 6 marbles.

Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.

Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.

BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

Is

*b*a positive number? (1) 1,452(*b*) > 0(2) –

*b*< 0Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.

Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.

BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

Is

*x*greater than*y*?(1)

*x*> 2*y*(2)

*x*–*y*> 0Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.

Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.

BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

What is the average test score of Angela, Barry, Carl, Dennis, and Edward?

The average of the test scores of Barry, Carl, and Edward is 87.

The average of the test scores of Angela and Dennis is 84.

Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.

Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.

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BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

If

*y*is an integer, is it an odd number? (1)*y*3 ≥ 0(2)

*y*is either an odd number or a negative numberStatement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) is not sufficient.

Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) is not sufficient.

BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

#### Critical Reasoning

For these questions, select the best of the answer choices given.

The latest movie by a certain director gets bad reviews before it opens in theatres. Consequently, very few people go to the movie and the director is given much less money to make his next movie, which is also unsuccessful.

What can be inferred from this scenario?

This director makes terrible movies.

The general public does not pay attention to movie reviews.

The movie reviewers were right about the first movie.

Movie reviewers exert influence on the movie quality.

The director will not make another movie.

The most important determinant of success in life is education. Even children from broken or dysfunctional homes tend to establish themselves as solid citizens so long as they obtain a high school education. On the other hand, children who fail to earn a high school diploma are much less likely to avoid prison, welfare, or divorce.

Which of the following statements most effectively strengthens the above argument?

A recent study demonstrated a link between education and lifetime earnings.

Most federal prisoners receive a high school diploma while incarcerated.

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Research indicates that college graduates from abusive homes are more likely to be arrested.

Individuals with heart problems are more likely to have postgraduate education.

Children from functional homes are more likely to attend preschool.

(1) All

*A*are*B*.(2) Some

*B*are*C*.Which of the following is true?

All A are

*C*.No

*A*are*C*.Some

*A*are*C*.No

*C*are*A*.None of the above.

Shakespeare is the greatest writer of all time. This is because he wrote the greatest plays, and the greatest writer is the one who composes the greatest works.

Which of the following statements most effectively challenges the reasoning above?

This argument disproves its own premise.

This argument uses ambiguous language.

This argument assumes what it claims to prove.

This argument introduces irrelevant evidence.

This argument fails to make a clear claim.

In the 2000 local election, only 28% of individuals between the ages of 18 and 25 voted. In the 2004 local election, however, candidates made more of an effort to appeal to these younger voters, so turnout was slightly higher at 39%.

Which of the following pieces of information weakens the above argument?

The candidates for city council were ages 55, 72, and 64.

The turnout among voters between the ages of 35 and 44 was 42% in 2004.

Turnout among African-Americans between 18 and 25 decreased from 2000 to 2004.

The polls stayed open later on Election Day in 2000.

In 2004, a referendum on lowering the legal age for purchasing alcohol to 18 was on the ballot.

Members of Congress should not be paid. After all, members of the school board receive no payment, and are therefore not beholden to any particular group.

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Which of the following facts most significantly weakens the above argument?

Members of Congress can also serve on the school board.

Being in Congress is a full-time job, while school board members have time to pursue other occupations.

Congress only is in session during part of the year.

Members of Congress typically have been successful in their prior professional lives.

Members of Congress are not allowed to show favoritism to any particular group.

All German cars are safe. Dale drives a German car, so his car is safe.

Which of the following arguments contains logic that closely resembles that of the preceding argument?

The newest cars often get better gas mileage. Helen has a new car, which must get better gas mileage.

A few of the candidates for governor are women. Dr. Lopez is a woman.

No brands of natural peanut butter contain preservatives. The peanut butter in Dave’s cabinet contains preservatives.

Every shark has a tailfin. The hammerhead is a kind of shark and therefore has a tailfin.

Some days of the week are Saturdays and Sundays. Today is neither Saturday nor Sunday.

The Tigers football team usually loses when they score fewer than 30 points. In their game against the Wildcats, they scored 24 points.

Which of the following statements would logically complete the argument with the above premises?

The Tigers lost to the Wildcats.

The Wildcats are the best football team in the league.

The Wildcats probably lost to the Tigers.

The Tigers are not a very good football team.

The Tigers probably lost to the Wildcats.

Dr. Jacobson stood up at the recent town hall meeting and declared that building a new shopping center at the corner of George and Vidalia Streets would be a bad move. He cited transportation department statistics indicating that the intersection would become overloaded with traffic, and would be very dangerous for motorists and pedestrians alike. The mayor dismissed Dr. Jacobson’s opinion, on the grounds that the proposed shopping center is within a block of Dr. Jacobson’s practice.

Why is the mayor’s argument weak?

He does not challenge Dr. Jacobson’s argument, but merely challenges him personally.

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He does not acknowledge the location of his own office.

He fails to recognize that Dr. Jacobson would probably welcome a new shopping center near his practice.

He does not support his view with statistics from the transportation department.

He doesn’t realize that Dr. Jacobson is about to retire.

#### Sentence correction

These questions present a sentence, all or part of which is underlined. Beneath each sentence you will find five ways of phrasing the underlined part. The first of these repeats the original; the other four are different. If you think the original is best, choose the first answer; otherwise, choose one of the other answers.

These questions test correctness and effectiveness of expression. In choosing your answer, follow the requirements of standard written English; that is, pay attention to grammar, choice of words, and sentence construction. Choose the answer that produces the most effective sentence; this answer should be clear and exact, without awkwardness, ambiguity, redundancy, or grammatical error.

If he stops to consider the ramifications of this decision,

__it is probable that he will rethink his original decision a while longer__.it is probable that he will rethink his original decision.

he will rethink his original decision over again.

he probably will rethink his original decision.

he will most likely rethink his original decision for a bit.

he probably will rethink his decision a while longer.

“When you get

__older,” she said “you will no doubt__understand what I mean.”older,” she said “you will no doubt

older” she said “you will no doubt

older,” she said, “you will no doubt

older,” she said “you will not

older”, she said, “you will no doubt

Dr. Anderson strolled past the nurses, examining a bottle of pills.

Dr. Anderson strolled past the nurses, examining a bottle of pills.

Dr. Anderson strolled past the nurses examining a bottle of pills.

Dr. Anderson strolled past, the nurses examining a bottle of pills.

Examining a bottle of pills Dr. Anderson strolled past the nurses.

Examining a bottle of pills, Dr. Anderson strolled past the nurses.

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Karl and Henry

__raced to the reservoir, climbed the ladder, and then they dove into__the cool water.raced to the reservoir, climbed the ladder, and then they dove into

first raced to the reservoir, climbed the ladder, and then they dove into

raced to the reservoir, they climbed the ladder, and then they dove into

raced to the reservoir; climbed the ladder; and then they dove into

raced to the reservoir, climbed the ladder, and dove into

Did either

__Tracy or Vanessa realize that her decision would be__so momentous?Tracy or Vanessa realize that her decision would be

Tracy or Vanessa realize that each of their decision was

Tracy or Vanessa realize that her or her decision would be

Tracy or Vanessa realize that their decision would be

Tracy or Vanessa realize that their decision was

Despite their lucky escape,

__Jason and his brother could not hardly enjoy themselves__.Jason and his brother could not hardly enjoy themselves.

Jason and his brother could not enjoy themselves.

Jason and Jason’s brother could not hardly enjoy themselves.

Jason and his brother could not enjoy them.

Jason and his brother could hardly enjoy them.

Stew recipes call

__for rosemary, parsley, thyme, and these sort of herbs.__for rosemary, parsley, thyme, and these sort of herbs.

for: rosemary; parsley; thyme; and these sort of herbs.

for rosemary, parsley, thyme, and these sorts of herbs.

for rosemary, parsley, thyme, and this sorts of herbs.

for rosemary, parsley, thyme, and these sorts of herb.

Mr. King,

__an individual of considerable influence, created a personal fortune and gave back__to the community.an individual of considerable influence, created a personal fortune and gave back

an individual of considerable influence, he created a personal fortune and gave back

an individual of considerable influence created a personal fortune and gave back

an individual of considerable influence, created a personal fortune and gave it back

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an individual of considerable influence, created a personal fortune and then he gave it back

She is the person whose opinion matters the most.

She is the person whose opinion matters the most.

She is the person to whom opinion matters the most.

She is the person who matters the most, in my opinion.

She is the person for whom opinion matters the most.

She is the person which has her opinion matter the most.

#### Reading Comprehension

Read the following passage and answer the seven questions that follow.

In the United States, where we have more land than people, it is not at all difficult for persons in good health to make money. In this comparatively new field there are so many avenues of success open, so many vocations which are not crowded, that any person of either sex who is willing, at least for the time being, to engage in any respectable occupation that offers, may find lucrative employment.

Those who really desire to attain an independence, have only to set their minds upon it, and adopt the proper means, as they do in regard to any other object which they wish to accomplish, and the thing is easily done. But however easy it may be found to make money, I have no doubt many of my hearers will agree it is the most difficult thing in the world to keep it. The road to wealth is, as Dr. Franklin truly says, "as plain as the road to the mill." It consists simply in expending less than we earn; that seems to be a very simple problem. Mr. Micawber, one of those happy creations of the genial Dickens, puts the case in a strong light when he says that to have annual income of twenty pounds per annum, and spend twenty pounds and sixpence, is to be the most miserable of men; whereas, to have an income of only twenty pounds, and spend but nineteen pounds and sixpence is to be the happiest of mortals.

Many of my readers may say, "we understand this: this is economy, and we know economy is wealth; we know we can't eat our cake and keep it also." Yet I beg to say that perhaps more cases of failure arise from mistakes on this point than almost any other. The fact is, many people think they understand economy when they really do not.

Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the passage?

Getting a job is easier now than it ever has been before.

Earning money is much less difficult than managing it properly.

Dr. Franklin advocated getting a job in a mill.

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Spending money is the greatest temptation in the world.

There is no way to predict changes in the economy.

What would this author’s attitude likely be to a person unable to find employment?

descriptive

conciliatory

ingenuous

incredulous

exculpatory

According to the author, what is more difficult than making money?

getting a job

traveling to a mill

reading Dickens

understanding the economy

managing money

Who is the most likely audience for this passage?

economists

general readers

teachers

philanthropists

children

What is the best definition of

*economy*as it is used in this passage?exchange of money, goods, and services

delegation of household affairs

efficient money management

less expensive

luxurious accommodations

Which word best describes the author’s attitude towards those who believe they understand money?

supportive

incriminating

excessive

patronizing

incendiary

This passage is most likely taken from a(n) .

self-help manual

autobiography

epistle

novel

brochure

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#### Problem-solving

B. Simply substitute the given values for

*a*and*b*and perform the required operations.C. This problem is solved by finding

*x*in this equation: 34/80 =*x*/100.C. Every possible combination of scores is a multiple of 7, since the two terms of the ratio have a sum of seven.

E. To solve this problem, work backwards. That is, perform FOIL on each answer choice until you derive the original expression.

A. A set of six numbers with an average of 4 must have a collective sum of 24. The two numbers that average 2 will add up to 4, so the remaining numbers must add up to 20. The average of these four numbers can be calculated: 20/4 = 5.

C. Prime numbers are those that are only evenly divisible by one and themselves.

D. Simple Multiplication.

D. Multiply 30 by 0.2 and subtract this from the original price of the shirt to find the sale price: $24. Then multiply 24 by 0.2 and add the product to the sale price to find the final price.

C. There are 12 inches in a foot and 3 feet in a yard. Four and a half yards is equal to 162 inches. To determine the number of 3-inche segments, divide 162 by 3.

A. If it takes 3 people 3 1/3 days to do the job, then it would take one person 10

days: 3 3 1 10 . Thus, it would take 2 people 5 days, and one day of work for two

3

people would complete 1/5 of the job.

E. There are 60 minutes in an hour, so Dave can deliver 240 newspapers every hour. In 2 hours, then, he can deliver 480 papers.

C. Since 4 is the same as 22, 46 = 212. When dividing exponents with the same base, simply subtract the exponent in the denominator from the exponent in the numerator.

B. Substitute the given values and solve. Resolve the parenthetical operations first.

A. Convert 20% to the fraction 1/5, then multiply by 12/5. The resulting fraction, 12/25, must have both numerator and denominator multiplied by 4 to become a percentage.

E. This problem can be solved with the following equation, in which

*x*= the totalcapacity of the tank:

1

*x* 1*x* 3 .2 3

#### Data sufficiency

E. The two statements establish only that Alice is paid more than both Jonathan and Deborah; they do not indicate which of these latter two is paid more.

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A. Since the cubes of

*a*and*b*will retain the original sign (whether positive or negative), it will be possible to assess the relative sizes of*a*and*b*.A. If the two shorter sides add up to 4 inches in length, the two longer sides must be greater than 4 inches, meaning that the perimeter will be greater than 8 inches.

B. The first statement only establishes that

*a*is a positive number; it does not require that*a*is an integer.C. 60 is the only integer between 40 and 70 that is a multiple of 2, 4, and 5.

A. The first statement establishes that the larger group constitutes half of the total amount of marbles, which means it must be equal to 25 marbles.

D. For (1), the fact that a positive number multiplied by

*b*has a positive product establishes that*b*is a positive number. For (2), any positive number with a negative sign placed in front of it will become negative, indicating that*b*is a positive number.B. It would be possible for

*x*and*y*to be negative numbers and still satisfy the conditions of (1), but it then would be impossible to satisfy (2).C. As long as the sum of all five test scores can be calculated, it will be possible to calculate the average score.

C. In order for (1) to be true,

*y*must be either positive or zero. Therefore, according to the terms of (2),*y*must be odd.#### Critical Reasoning

D. The negative reviews led to the poor quality of the second movie.

A. This evidence would support the assertions of the given argument.

E. There is no way of determining whether any, some, or none of

*A*are*C*.C. This is an example of circular reasoning, in which the proof depends on assumptions which themselves have not been proven.

E. It seems likely that this referendum could influence many young people to vote.

B. Drawing an analogy between being a member of Congress and serving on the school board is highly dubious.

D. The logic of this argument can be expressed as follows: All

*A*are*B*.*C*is*A*, therefore*C*is*B*.E. There is no way to be certain that the Tigers lost, though it seems likely.

A. The mayor is essentially using an

*ad hominem*argument, in which the character of the opponent rather than the merits of his reasoning is attacked.#### Sentence correction

C. The original sentence is redundant and wordy.

C. The syntax of the original sentence is fine, but a comma after

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E. In the original sentence, the modifier is placed too far away from the word it modifies.

E. The verb structure should be consistent in a sentence with parallel structures.

A. The singular pronoun

*her*is appropriate since the antecedents are joined byor. Also, the subjunctive verb form is required to indicate something indefinite.

B. The combination of

*hardly*and*not*constitutes a double negative.C. The plural demonstrative adjective

*these*should be used with the plural nounsorts.

A. This sentence contains a number of parallel structures that must be treated consistently.

A. In this sentence,

*whose*is the appropriate possessive pronoun to modifyopinion.

#### Reading Comprehension

B. The author asserts both that earning money is increasingly easy and that managing money is difficult.

D. The author seems to believe that there are plenty of lucrative jobs for everyone.

E. The author insists that many people who have no trouble earning money waste it through lavish spending.

B. This passage is clearly intended for a non-expert adult readership.

C. Here, the author is speaking of money management on a personal or household level.

D. The author suggests that many people who believe they understand economy in fact do not.

A. It seems clear that the author is about to describe the correct means of personal economy.

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Analytical Writing Assessment

#### Analysis of an Issue

This writing task is designed to test your ability to present a position on an issue effectively and persuasively. Your task is to analyze the issue presented, considering various perspectives, and to develop your own position on the issue. In scoring your issue essay, readers will consider how effectively you: recognize and deal with the complexities and implications of the issue; organize, develop, and express your ideas; support your ideas with reasons and examples; control the elements of standard written English. You are given 30 minutes to write the response. You must not write on any other subject than the one expressed in the prompt. You are allowed to accept, reject, or qualify the statement made by the prompt, though you must be sure to support whatever position you take with reasons and examples from your experience, observation, reading, and/or academic studies. You should take a few minutes to plan your response before typing.

Sample #1

The volunteer fire department in a rural district is in need of some new equipment. Some members of the community believe that the fire department should hold a fund-raising event like a carnival or a raffle. Others argue that the citizens of the community should all be required to contribute to any equipment costs. Some critics of this proposal say that if citizens are required to pay for new equipment they should have the authority to vote on whether the new equipment is needed.

Sample #2

There is at present a heated debate over the role of the United States in foreign affairs. Some experts argue that the cost and unintended consequences of American intervention are so great that the United States should simply mind its own business. Others assert that America’s economic and political power necessitate foreign intervention, both to protect American interests and human rights. Another group derides these opposing views as condescending to the people of other countries, and suggests that the United States consult with foreign countries before becoming involved in their affairs.

Sample #3

Although elementary education proposals have typically emphasized math and science, there is a growing movement to restore fine arts education in the early grades. Many education experts assert that neglecting music, dance, and painting

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produces students who have a great deal of knowledge but little capability of expression. Furthermore, they argue, the creativity and free-thinking required for the practice of the fine arts leads to innovation and progress in other areas. Critics of these proposals argue that the United States still lags behind other countries in science and mathematics test scores, and should focus on improving performance in these areas before allocating extra funds to arts programs.

Sample #4

The population of the town of Cedar Grove has risen considerably in the last few years, leading to rapid growth in the local economy. At the same time, there has been an increasing need for housing. Many of the new residents want to live on large tracts of land a few miles away from the city center. They argue that there are no land restrictions forbidding this, and that they should be able to live where they want. Other residents complain that expanding the town over a huge amount of land will estrange residents from one another, and will force the town to spend more money bolstering highways and infrastructure. They propose that the city council restrict development in these far-flung areas until the terrain closer to town has been fully populated.

Sample #5

The federal government has long struggled with the issue of income tax. Many people feel that government programs require the collection of an income tax, and that it makes sense to collect more tax money from the wealthier members of society. Other people declare that is unfair to penalize individuals for being successful, and suggest that the same amount of income tax be applied to all citizens. These people further suggest that overtaxing the wealthiest members of society actually has a deleterious effect on the economy for everyone, because it discourages investment and the creation of new jobs.

#### Analysis of an Argument

This writing task is designed to test your critical reasoning skills as well as your writing skills. Your task is to critique the stated argument in terms of its logical soundness and in terms of the strength of the evidence offered in support of the argument. In scoring your argument essay, the reader will consider how effectively you: identify and analyze the key elements of the argument; organize, develop, and express your critique; support your ideas with reasons and examples; control the elements of standard written English.

You are not being asked to agree or disagree with any of the statements in the argument. You should only consider the argument’s line of reasoning. Specifically, you should consider: questionable assumptions underlying the argument; the extent to

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which the evidence presented supports the conclusion of the argument; what additional evidence would help to strengthen or refute the argument; and what additional information if any would help you to evaluate the argument’s conclusion.

Sample #1

Over the past few years, baseball officials have come to the realization that it is impossible to entirely eradicate performance-enhancing drugs. Despite stringent testing measures, many players continue to use amphetamines, steroids, and other banned substances to improve their performance on the diamond. In light of this failure, some players have demanded that the commissioner of baseball simply allow all players to make use of these substances under medical supervision.

According to these players, allowing performance-enhancing drugs will eliminate cheating and ensure that training regimens are safe.

Sample #2

When drivers visit a state office to renew their licensure, they are not tested on the road or on the basic signs and procedures of driving. A new safety commission has declared that in order to reduce accidents on the road, drivers should be required to pass a comprehensive driving test every time they seek to renew their driver’s license. They also argue that individuals over the age of 60 should be forced to provide permission from a doctor in order to maintain their licensure.

Sample #3

According to the author of a recent editorial, most of the problems in the United States are a consequence of the national dependence on oil. Oil consumption is expensive, damaging to the environment, and requires the United States to do business with some unsavory regimes. The United States should therefore impose strict gas-mileage requirements on automobiles, effective immediately. Although this would pose some temporary problems for the economy, in the long run it would be the best solution to American oil addiction.

Sample #4

All college athletics programs should be discontinued immediately. Athletics programs are extremely expensive to maintain, and waste resources and space that could be better spent on academic pursuits. Furthermore, college athletics diminish the role of academics in the college experience, and tend to be a distraction from the true purpose of the university: to produce educated, informed, and productive citizens.

Sample #5

*GMATTM is a registered trademark of The Graduate Management Admission 20

A state government has decided that rather than maintain tollbooths and employees to generate funds for road improvement, it would be more efficient to simply increase the state income tax. Proponents of this plan declare that even those individuals who do not drive on the toll road are the recipients of goods transported there. They also suggest that money can be saved by reducing the number of state employees and maintenance on aging toll offices.

*GMATTM is a registered trademark of The Graduate Management Admission 21

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